In this brief, Hanover summarizes the current state of policy and practice related to the science of reading. The science of reading comprises an understanding of research-based reading, reading development at different stages, and reading instructional practices (e.g., explicit phonics, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction).
Put simply, it describes the research behind how students learn to read. Petscher et al. (2020) define the Science of Reading as “a phrase representing the accumulated knowledge about reading, reading development, and best practices for reading instruction obtained by the use of the scientific method.” Such reading development and practices rely, in part, on a foundation of neurological research which explains how the brain functions to enable learners to connect sounds and oral language to letters and words prior to comprehending the meaning of full passages.